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A present-day Bhil tribesman


A Bhil wedding


Decoration of a Bhil hut


Preparing local hooch
from Mahua berries


Bhil men performing
in the Gavri festival


The Bhil tribe forms an important community, which inhabits mainly the southern districts of Rajasthan, including the hilly regions surrounding Udaipur and Chittaurgarh.

According to the 1991 Nationwide Census they constituted over 2.3 million people, making them the second-largest tribal group in Rajasthan. The generic term, which describes their tribe, apparently derives its name from ‘bil’, meaning bow, which refers to their original talent and strength.
History corroborates the legends, which tells of the Bhils’ superiority in archery. From the Mahabharata emerges Eklavya, a Bhil who surpassed the skill of Arjuna only to be repressed by the command of his guru. The Ramayana tells of Vail, the Bhil bandit who reformed with the blessings of Saraswati, the goddess of learning, to become Valmiki, the renowned poet sage.

It is difficult to trace the history of the Bhils and even harder to say for certain whether they originate from Indian soil or whether they migrated here. Many scholars believe that they inhabited India before the arrival of the Dravidians, and it may be that they are amongst the earliest group of people in the sub-continent.

The generally medium-sized stature, dark skin and thick hair points to the possibility that they derive from African stock. The Bhils are a hardy and brave people, of simple lifestyle & habits. Thousands of years ago, their ancestors would have led similar lives, using their knowledge of farming land & domesticating animals in much the same ways as they do today.

The Bhils are gentle and make great friends, but in battle they are implacable enemies. Rana Pratap's camaraderie with the Bhils proved to be a great asset and strength to him and a nightmare for the Mughals.

Whilst the Bhils of old played a major role in the shaping of history in the erstwhile Rajputana, their descendants do not seem to have benefited from the bravery of their forefathers. The Bhil tribes-people of Today appear rather neglected and unappreciated. This may largely be due to their simple way of life and the fact that they have never come to the fore!


A Bhil community known as a ‘pal’ normally sprawls over scattered settlements without a distinct boundary. In the plains, the settlements are more compact than in the hills, where river beds decide the space for the habitat. The local chieftain, referred to as the ‘mukhi’, has the final word in all matters - social, legal and financial, and his decisions are respected by the community over which he presides. The usual arbitration arises over thefts and cases of abduction.


The most important period of the year to a Bhil is the 40 days following the Monsoon. During this period Bhil men consider it an honour and a duty to participate in a roving group of performers who enact Hindu stories in village squares throughout their district. The Gavri is an exciting time for participants and audience alike. The audience will often be just about every inhabitant of the village. Females cannot participate, so female roles are also played by men, who dress up in the most gaudy costumes they can find. But the Gavri is not merely fun time it is a series of acts based on the Hindu epics; tales of the heroes and villains that make up the essence of Hinduism. It is considered a religious, even holy event, and the participants must follow very strict and arduous regulations during the entire 40-day period.

A participant cannot consume green vegetables, meat, cigarettes, or alcohol, neither can he perform sex, wear shoes or go upstairs in his own home. Some won't even stay in their own home. If a participant dies during the Gavri period, he is considered a saint, and as with sadhus, he will not be cremated, but buried. After the Gavri, the relations of any man who has participated are expected to present him with gifts of new clothes.

Popular enactments include the legends of the great goddess Amba Mata, who is depicted sitting upon a tiger, as she performs battle with demons. The Gavri is never complete without the story of one of the aspects of Lord Shiva, Gouri and his wife Buriya, otherwise known as Parvati. Gavri starts just after Raki (Rakhsha Bhandan). At the commencement of the period, wheat is sown in pots full of mud. On the last day these pots full of bright green wheat shoots are carried on the head in a grand procession.

Gouri, the main Gavri deity (one of the aspects of Lord Shiva, sits atop a model elephant and is carried to a lake or river in which it is consigned. The Gavri season takes on the semblance of a holiday. Building work in the city almost grinds to a halt, since the Bhils who make up most of the area's construction workforce, would never give up this most important festival for mere monetary gain!